Safety Know-How

The Safety Know-How online guide includes a selection of European directives and important machine safety standards and provides assistance in selecting and using protective devices. Interactive calculation wizards support the person setting up, for example, with the standards-compliant dimensioning of hard guards or the calculation of required safety distances with electro-sensitive protective equipment.

Safety at work
     1. Introduction

2. Machine safety in the EU
     2.1 European directives
     2.1.1 The EU Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC
     2.1.2 Use of Work Equipment Directive 2009/104/EC
     2.2 The European safety standard system
     2.2.2 Formulation process of a harmonized standard
     2.2.3 Hierarchy of the European standards for machine safety
     2.3 Safety of machinery, risk analysis and risk assessment
     2.4 Safety-related parts of control systems
     2.4.1 EN ISO 13849-1, Part 1: General principles for design
     2.4.2 IEC/EN 62061: Functional safety, control systems

3. Machine safety in the USA
     3.1 OSHA regulations
     3.2 US standards ANSI, NFPA, UL
     3.3 Strategy for risk reduction
     3.4 Control reliability

4. Protective devices
     4.2 Guarding with optoelectronic protective devices
     4.2.1 Selecting and applying optoelectronic protective devices
     Step 1: Risk assessment
     Step 2: Selection of type and protective function
     Step 3: Selection of the required safety type
     Characteristic parameters, selection aid and risk parameters
     Step 4: Safety distance calculation
     General procedure for AOPD with perpendicular approach
     Safety distance calculation, perpendicular approach (reaching through)
     Safety distance calculation, multiple light beam safety devices (reaching and stepping through)
     Number of beams and beam heights, multiple light beam safety devices (access guarding)
     Safety distance calculation, parallel approach (reaching through)
     US specifications for safety distance calculation
     ANSI B11.10-2003 Safety distance calculation, perpendicular approach (point of operation guarding)
     Safety distance calculation, parallel approach (danger zone guarding)
     Safety distance calculation, multiple light beam safety devices (access guarding)
     4.3 Safeguarding with guards
     4.3.1 Fixed guards
     4.3.2 Moving guards

Safety inspections

Calculation wizards
     Guard: low risk
     Guard: high risk
     Safety light curtains: perpendicular approach (14 to 40 mm)
     Safety light curtains: with additional control function (14 to 30 mm)
     Safety light curtains: perpendicular approach (40 to 70 mm)
     Safety light curtains: parallel approach
     Safety light curtains: approach at a certain angle α
     Multiple light beam safety devices: perpendicular approach
     Scanning laser scanners: stationary area monitoring


The recommendations in this guide and the list of directives and standards are not intended to be exhaustive. For the installation, operation and maintenance of the products, the relevant regulations in the respective, valid version and the notes in the operating instructions are to be observed. Failure to observe these notes can result in death or severe injuries.

Leuze electronic GmbH + Co. KG assumes no liability for damage resulting from the use of this guide or for the accuracy of the generally applicable standards and directives.

Keywords: Safety distance